★ Rugby union in England
Rugby union in England is one of the leading professional and recreational team sports. In 1871 the Rugby Football Union, the governing body for rugby union in England, was formed by 21 rugby clubs, and the first international match, which involved England, was played in Scotland. The English national team compete annually in the Six Nations Championship, and are former world champions after winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup. The top domestic mens club competition is Premiership Rugby, and English clubs also compete in international competitions such as the European Rugby Champions Cup. The top domestic womens competition is the Premier 15s.
1.1. History. Rugby School and foundation of early clubs. (Школе Рагби и основания досрочного клубы)
Rugby in England is generally attributed to when William Webb Ellis "who with a fine disregard for the rules as played in his time first took the ball in his hands and ran with it" in 1823 in a school in Rugby, although modern scholars consider this story is nothing more than a myth. Formed one of the early football clubs, some argue it to actually be first, its the guys hospital football club which was founded in 1843 in guys hospital, Southwark, London. The club played in an early version of Rugby, and were formed by former pupils of the school Rugby. Subsequent clubs established in this period include the football club Dublin University in 1854 and the Blackheath Rugby club in 1858.
1.2. History. The forming of the RFU. (Формирование РФС)
The football Association was founded in the Freemasons tavern, great Queen street, Lincolns INN fields, London on 26 October 1863, with the intention to include the most acceptable points of play under the one heading of football. However, disagreement about what is deprived of the opportunity to drive in Blackheath club to withdraw from the Association and was followed by several other clubs. In 1870, Richmond F. C. published an invitation in the Newspapers which read "those who play the Rugby-type game should meet to form a code of conduct in various clubs play to rules which differ from others, which makes the game difficult to play". In January of the following year, 21 clubs meet at a restaurant pall Mall Rugby football Union RFU was founded.
1.3. History. First international and the schism in rugby. (Первый международный и раскола в регби)
27 March 1871 the first international match was held, with the participation of the national team of England Rugby and Scottish. Scotland won the match, which was played at Raeburn place in Edinburgh. In 1884 in England decided not to join the International football Rugby Board, which was formed by Ireland, Scotland and Wales as they thought they should have greater representation on the Board as they have more clubs.
By the end of the 19th century, the issue over broken time in Rugby had become important, especially in the North of England, where a larger working class played Rugby compared to the South, so their work and injuries they received during the game came into conflict with the rules of amateurism. The pressure on player payments and veiled professionalism, on August 29, 1895 at a meeting in the George hotel, Huddersfield, 21 clubs met to form the Northern Rugby football Union and thus resigned from the RFU. The game of Rugby was formed from disaffected clubs.
During this period, Rugby was played between counties similar to the system of first-class cricket in England. In 1907, Cornwall won the County tournament and then represented the UK in Rugby at the summer Olympics 1908.
1.4. History. Twickenham and centenary celebrations. (Туикнем и юбилейных торжеств)
Opening in 1910 RFUs new home in Twickenham has marked the Golden era for English Rugby. During the First world war, four of the state championship was suspended in 1915 and was not resumed until 1920. One hundred and thirty three international players were killed during the conflict. In 1923, a century of Rugby was celebrated in a school in Rugby that was seen in England and Wales XV play a Scottish-Irish team.
1.5. History. World War II
During the Second world war, the ban on players of Rugby League has been temporarily removed from the RFU. Many played in the eight Rugby "internationals" between England and Scotland, which played the armed groups of services. The authorities also allowed the playing of two "Rugby League and Rugby Union" fixtures as fundraisers for the war effort both matches won team of the Rugby League playing Rugby. In 1958, shortly after William Webb Ellis had become engraved as a legend in the history of Rugby, his grave was finally located on Edward Heath in the French town of Menton, near the border with Monaco.
1.6. History. Formation of leagues. (Формирование лиг)
The RFU long resisted competitions leagues, as it was believed that they would encourage and payments player, so most of the matches of the club was only organized friendly matches, competitions such as County cups and County championship available as well. In 1972 the RFU imposed sanctions on the shootout, which was updated in 2005 in the contest of the Top-level is now English and Welsh parties are known as PH= Cup. The League has evolved over time since beginning in 1987 when the courage leagues were formed, the League pyramid that had more than 1.000 clubs playing in 108 leagues, each with promotion and relegation.
1.7. History. Professionalism. (Профессионализм)
The Heineken Cup was formed in 1995 as a competition for twelve European clubs and ran in the season 2013/14, after which it was replaced by the European Champions Cup Rugby. Both competitions involve teams from England, France, Wales, Ireland, Scotland and Italy. A century of competition in the European Rugby powers were six championship United Nations in 2000 with the addition of Italy.
In November 2008 a proposal was made and accepted by the RFU to create a fully professional second tier of club Rugby, which will be called the championship. He replaced National division since the 2009-10 season.
2.1. Competitions. Premiership. (Премьерство)
12 teams of the Premier League is the highest level of competition, it is fully professional but has a salary on the spot. The former RFU championship, National division one and national League 1, formerly National division two following the stairs down. The championship became fully professional in 2009-10, the League 1 is a semi-professional. Below this there are many regional leagues. Attendance at club Rugby in England has risen sharply since the sport went professional. Some clubs have good all signs of local 10.000–25.000 capacity range, some older grounds which are still partly terraced, and others play in Council-owned joint-use stadia. Some clubs rent stadiums with football clubs.
2.2. Competitions. Anglo-Welsh Cup and Premiership Rugby Cup. (Англо-валлийский Кубок и Кубок Премьер-лиги регби)
Anglo-Welsh Cup, known by a few authors names during its history, was the successor tournament, established in season 1971-72 as the RFU club competition. Originally it was the National knock-out for English club teams, and had several sponsored names in the next quarter of a century. Starting with the 2005-06 season it was changed in the competition for Premiership clubs plus the Welsh sides competing in the Celtic League, now Pro14. The EDF national trophy was established in 2005-06 as a new shootout exclusively with English clubs but Premiership sides do not participate. Through the 2013/14 season the strongest teams in the Premier League took part in the Heineken Cup and the rest of the Premier League competed in the Amlin Cup. Starting with the 2014-15 season, the top Premiership sides competing in the Champions Cup, with the rest of the League participate in the new European Cup Rugby challenge.
After 2017-18 edition of the Anglo-Welsh Cup, the Welsh regions to withdraw from the race in favor of creating a separate u-23 was one of competition for this country. Premier Rugby, the company that operates in the best English flight, and then announced that she will launch a new Prime Cup Rugby, involving all 12 members of the League, starting with the 2018-19 season.
2.3. Competitions. British and Irish Cup. (Кубок Англии и Ирландии)
The Cup of England and Ireland-a competition founded in 2009-10 all four Home Unions for lower level professional and semi-professional teams throughout the UK and Ireland. In the competition of the third season it was expanded to 32 sides from its original 24, were presented to all twelve teams from the RFU championship and the Welsh Premier League is a level below Pro14, "a", sides from all four Irish provinces, and the first four teams from the Scottish Premier League. 32 teams were divided into eight pools, each with a circular format. The winners of the pool then jump off to the Quarterfinals, then the semifinals and finals. For the season 2013/14 competition back in 24 downwards Welsh clubs in age from twelve to four. The last English team won the London Welsh in 2016, which was dissolved in championship season 2016-17 due to excessive debt.
2.4. Competitions. Natwest Cup. (Кубок Натвест)
The NatWest Cup and English schools Cup Rugby. The final will take place at the Twickenham stadium. The competition is held in U18 and 15-year-old age groups. In each age group are two competitions, a Cup for schools that won their opening match, and vase for those who lost their debut matches.
2.5. Competitions. Middlesex 7s. (Мидлсекс 7С)
Middlesex 7S Prime club-level Rugby is in England.
2.6. Competitions. London Sevens. (Лондон Семерки)
National mens sevens teams compete annually in the London sevens at Twickenham, which is usually the final event of each seasons World series Rugby from 2011-12, although this is not the last event in a series of 2017-18.
3. Premiership Derbies. (Дерби Премьерства)
The following games are considered derbies of the Premier League.
- London derby - between Harlequins and Saracens.
- West Country derbies - historically between Bath, Bristol and Gloucester, and now also including Exeter Chiefs.
- Midlands derbies - between Northampton Saints, Leicester Tigers, Wasps and Worcester Warriors.
4.1. Popularity. Participation. (Участие)
According to world Rugby, England Rugby 1.900 clubs, 6.060 judges 362.319 pre-Teens, men, 698.803 players teenager, 121.480 senior players total players male 1.182.602 as well as an 11.000 senior female players. But these statistics are unreliable. "Sports in England" indicates that 170.200 people play Rugby at least once a week.
Rugby Union is often regarded, somewhat pejoratively, the game is awesome. This can be linked historically to the split between the Northern teams and the rest of the Rugby fraternity over broken-time payments, i.e. professionalism. This split led to the development of the separate sport of Rugby League. The Amateur spirit made it hard for players who could not afford to take time off work to play games or go on excursions - an integral part of the Rugby tradition. Rugby in many parts of England due to pay independent schools such as Stonyhurst College or sedbergh school who have historically provided many of the national players. He also often played in school, but schools in most parts of the country, as a rule, do not play the game, though it is not. While Rugby was officially an Amateur sport, many Rugby players Union came to play Rugby. In recent years this trend has changed, and some players of Rugby League crossed codes to play Union.
Due to the split with most of the Yorkshire and Lancashire clubs, Rugby Union remained more popular in the South and in the Midlands the UK than the North of England, although this trend is now nowhere near as prevalent, with many teams in the North of the state of the field four or five senior sides per week. Newcastle falcons and sale sharks are the only Northern teams in the Premier League, while Yorkshire Carnegie also previously competed there.
Although four teams in the Premier League have a historical connection with London, one of them is now moved to the next town, and the second moved to a more distant city of Coventry, and only harlequins and Saracens play right now in the capital, respectively, in the London suburb of Hendon and the Saracens also played in the neighbouring town before returning to London in early 2013. At the Amateur level, however, Rugby remains strong in London.
4.2. Popularity. Interest in the population and viewing figures. (Интерес у населения и просмотра цифр)
English Rugby Union receives wide coverage in the press. Currently, the sport takes up most of the games in the Premier League, Gallagher, B. B. C. and ITV share coverage of the six Nations, sky covers England in June and November collections and ITV extends to the Rugby world Cup. BT Sport and Sky sports share coverage of European club competitions.
The percentage of people declaring to be interested in Rugby in England was fairly constant during 1996-2005 for which data are available. This proportion decreased slightly from 24% in 1995 to 18% before the 2003 Rugby world Cup, it jumped to 27% after Englands victory over Australia in the final of the world Cup. In 2005, 23% of the population declare their interest in Rugby, the location of the sport to 6th place in England. On the question of whether they watch Rugby on TV, 21% of the sample of people answered positively in 2005, two points in relation to 1996 of 19%. In this category, places with Rugby in second place in England After the football. The number of hits to the finals of the Premier League suggests that 91.000 viewers watched the 2011 final on TV when he was featured on ESPN for the first time. In 2010, the final looked 225.000 viewers on sky.
From the point of view of the average attendance of the English Premier League is the third most attended club competition in England behind the top two Association football leagues, the Premier League and the Championship. The high attendance of the club in the English Premier League matches start to become similar to some of the lower attended matches in the championship football game attendance average of 12.500 in 2011 compared to 17.400 in the football championship.
Historically Rugby Union was a collective sport, not a spectator sport in England and attendance at the club games was low. For example Leicester tigers averaging less than a hundred spectators in the 1970-ies. However, the attendance at Twickenham stadium for the national team has always been very high. Games in the six Nations championship and the Rugby world Cup was always shown on television. Many people watch these games, but dont follow club Rugby, mainly due to the fact that the pay-TV company Sky Sports owns the rights to broadcast the games and they very rarely shown on television.
Research from 2003 stated that most of the audience from the AB1 demographic group the proportion of men and approximately 80% men and 20% women on the line domestic, professional matches. However, this overall picture of the sport across the country as a whole and, in some parts of the country, the game has broad support. This is especially true of the West country, particularly in Cornwall and in the cities of bath and Gloucester, where the game is substantially more popular than football without significant class differentiation. In the Midlands, the game competes with football and big clubs such as Leicester Tigers, Northampton saints and Coventry, have considerable fanbases and strong traditions.
5. The national team. (Сборная)
The English national team is currently the second best team in the history of the six Nations championship with three titles and one Grand slam. Considering the home of the United Nations and five Nations tournaments, England has a different name and Grand slams than any other nation. Competition England Calcutta Cup with Scotland and the Millennium trophy with Ireland in the framework of the six Nations championship. They were world Champions from 2003-2007, and also made the finals in 1991 and 2007 world Championships. In the world of Rugby is currently in England for 3 out of 95 Union-playing countries. They play their home games at Twickenham in Middlesex. "Swing low, sweet chariot" is a song associated with the national team of Rugby Union, although it was originally sung by black slaves on cotton plantations in the southern United States every four years the British and Irish Lions go on tour with players from England as well as Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
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