★ Rugby union in Japan
Rugby union in Japan is a moderately popular sport. Japan has the fourth largest population of rugby union players in the world and the sport has been played there for over a century. There are 125.000 Japanese rugby players, 3.631 official rugby clubs, and the Japan national team is ranked 7th in the world.
1. History. (История)
Before the arrival of Rugby, Japan is home to a game known as Kemari Japanese: 蹴鞠 that in some ways was a parallel development of the football Association, and to a lesser extent Rugby. It is said that Kemari was introduced to Japan from China around 600 BC, in the Asuka period, and was based on the Chinese sport of cuju. The object of kemari is to keep the ball in the air, all players cooperating to do so. The ball, known as Mari, is made of deerskin with the hair facing inside and hide on the outside. Kemari has been revived in our time, and the players still wear the traditional costumes for the game.
1.1. History. Early history. (Ранняя история)
Like many Western customs, Rugby football was the first to reach Japan when gunboat diplomacy deployed by the United States and European powers from the country the period of isolation in 1854.
The first was the case the team created and play football in Japan in 1866 with the founding of the Yokohama foot ball club. The rules Committee of the club consisted of well-known Rugby school, Radley and Winchester College graduates, including captain Charles de Rochefort and captain Robert Blount-20th East Devonshire regiment of foot and Lieutenant of the Royal Navy by sir Walter Kerr. Soon, other graduates of the school Rugby followed, including George Hamilton, who was team captain Yokohama. Games, mainly between soldiers, played at the garrison parade Ground in Yamate, Yokohama.
In 1874 the records also illustrate the English sailors staged a game in Yokohama. Other games were played at other Treaty ports, such as Kobe between the teams long-term foreign residents and visiting ships, garrisons, etc. but they rarely do the indigenous Japanese.
Date of participation of the local Japanese in this sport is the most frequently cited in 1899, when the students of Keio University was introduced to the game, Brumwell Professor Edward Clark, who was born in Yokohama and Ginnosuke Tanaka 田中 銀之助. As Tanaka Clark were graduates of Cambridge University. Japanese Rugby has only started to develop in the 1920-ies. Clark taught English and coached Rugby at Keio from 1899 to 1910, after which he injured his right leg forced him to give up the game.
Clark said he wanted to give his students something constructive to do as theyseemed to have nothing to occupy them out of doors in the after-summer and after-winter days. Winter baseball had not yet come in, and the young fellows loitered around wasting the hours and the lovely outdoor weather."
1.2. History. Early 20th century. (В начале 20-го века)
In 1901, Keio University played "Yokohama foreigners" losing 35-5, but the game demonstrated that the racial barriers in the sport break. Professor Clarke played this game with a conversion after the student called Shiyoda scored a try. From Keio, Japanese Rugby swept to the other universities of Japan, and to this day, private universities will remain the mainstay of the Japanese game. Doshisha and Waseda held the first inter-University game in 1923. In Keio and Waseda match, a long rivalry between two of the areas most renowned universities, has been played annually since 1924.
The growth of Japanese Rugby in the early 20th century, in the midst of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance was rapid, to the 1920-th years there were nearly 1.500 Rugby clubs, and more than 60.000 registered players, which meant that its resources were larger than those of Scotland, Wales and Ireland put together. Despite these very impressive numbers, Japanese Rugby was still isolated, and to some extent closed the first Rugby tours to Japan was not until the 1930-ies.
In to the jrfu published a pamphlet about it called the land of the Rising scrum., and the Japanese Royal family were keen supporters of the game for many decades.
Japan and Canada held the first tour outside the main "traditional" Rugby playing countries. Japan toured British Columbia in 1930, and Canada went on tour to Japan in 1932. Canada has won 5 / 6 their first matches in Japan, before they were defeated 38-5 by the Japanese national team, in front of a crowd of 25.000 on 31 January 1932. Team Canada was brought to the trade mission.
Canadians attributed their defeat, "too interesting, too many games in a short period, and the inspired play of the Japanese in front of the assembled nobility of Japan".
In 1934, the Australian universities side toured Japan, and lost to Keio and Waseda, in front of a crowd of more than 20.000.
1.3. History. Prince Chichibu. (Принц Титибу)
After world war II, Prince Chichibu was honorary head of many athletic organizations, and was nicknamed the "sporting Prince" due to his efforts to promote skiing, Rugby and other sports.
He was "converted" to Rugby after, jrfu President, Shigeru Kayama returned from a long sea voyage and was able to "market" the game to Prince Chichibu. He studied at Oxford University, but was only there for one term, and had to return when his father, Emperor Taisho died. In Japan, his interest was further strengthened when he saw Keio play Waseda. He became President of the jrfu in 1926.
After his death in 1953, the Tokyo Rugby stadium in kita-Aoyama 2-chome was renamed Chichibunomiya Rugby stadium 秩父宮ラグビー場 – Chichibunomiya Ragubī-Jo. Statue of Prince Chichibu Rugby uniform was erected.
1.4. History. Tōjō Regime and Second World War. (Tōjō режима и Второй мировой войны)
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, Japanese fascist regime, as a rule, were hostile to the game, as it was seen as particularly foreign, despite the fact that the Japanese Royal family continued to support the game. As a result, Rugby was renamed Tokyo, meaning "battle ball".
The consequences of the Second world war, many Japanese players dead, with bombing destroying much of its physical infrastructure. However, games continued during the Second world war until 1943, when military control of the field and the lack of available players did their job.
1.5. History. Post-war period. (Послевоенный период)
Japanese Rugby has made a surprisingly rapid recovery in the postwar period despite the massive destruction of infrastructure and death of many players. In September 1945, less than a month after the war, advertising for Rugby in Hokkaido managed to attract at least fifty people for a meeting. 23 September 1945, the first postwar schools match was held in Kyoto. Kobe steel to promote the game among their employees at the end of 1945, believing it will raise their morale, and create a precedent for subsequent attracting heavy Japanese corporate Rugby.
In 1950-e years, Japan had toured England the two main parties of the University. Oxford University toured Japan in 1952, and in 1956, and the University of Cambridge have traveled there in 1953. In 1959, combined Oxbridge side toured the country. Junior all blacks toured in 1958, winning three "tests" against Japan.
Japan beat the Junior all blacks 23-19 in 1968. After losing the first four match tour of New Zealand, they have won the last five.
1.6. History. 1970s
In 1971 England visited Japan. Shiggy Konno admitted that the lack of growth among Japanese players were the problem, but said it was –easier to pick the ball up, pack down low in the scrum, and generally move around more quickly. This is where our strength is, and we have to play to it."
The Japanese are coached by Waseda University Professor Onishi Tetsunosuke lost just 3-6 to England in Tokyo on 29 September 1971 in RFUs centenary.
First tour of Japan in the UK in 1973.
Japan, despite its huge resources, this is a big problem in the lack of pitches, since Japan is highly urbanised land is at a weight of gold in the country. Sometimes this results in a field being used for games from 6 am until late at night. Japan also has a praiseworthy lack of violence and thuggery in its Rugby, according to legend, a game between army sides in 1975 got out of control, resulting in both units being disbanded, the commanders fired, and every player will be banned indefinitely. Like, not had any problems since.
The Japanese team are known for their speed and resourcefulness, but sometimes find themselves in a less advantageous position due to their smaller size compared to Southern hemisphere and European players. However, everything changes.
Japan has not performed too well in the forefront in the international arena. 1990 was a high point – they beat Scotland in the fifteenth century, which was in the national team in all but name. They qualified for every Rugby world Cup and won almost every championship of Asia, despite some strong challenges from South Korea, but they hardly ever hit the basic commands. At the world Championships, their first victory over Zimbabwe, which is partly qualified as African representative South Africa were excluded due to their racist apartheid regime.
There is also a statue of a scrum team in Rugby outside the Olympic stadium. Statues of sports people are relatively rare in Japan.
1.7. History. 1980s
Japan gave Wales a fright in losing slim five-point margin, 24-29, at Cardiff arms Park on 2 October 1983.
28 may 1989 a strong Japan coached by Hiroaki Shukuzawa defeat under the power of Scotland, missing nine British lions on tour in Australia for the first time at Chichibunomiya Rugby stadium, 28-24. In Japan team included such Kobe steel stalwarts as centre Seiji hirao captain, and locks Atsushi Oyagi and Toshiyuki Hayashi 38 Japan caps and a member of Oxford Universitys all-time best XV. Sinali latu at No. 8 was then in my fourth year at the University of Daito Bunka, and soon Nihita Yoshida on the wing there. 14 third year at Meiji University. Scotland missed an incredible seven penalties and refused the kicking tee, which was generously offered – how to survive video of the game show. It was almost the same Japanese team which defeated Zimbabwe in the 1991 world Cup Rugby Union.
1.8. History. Accusations of "shamateurism" and foreign players. (Обвинения в "shamateurism" и иностранные игроки)
The Japanese are traditionally strong proponents of amateurism in Rugby, but traditionally many of their teams worked in large corporations, and that the players as employees of these companies were guilty in the form of "shamateurism". In the 1970-ies a large number of foreign players began playing in Japan in corporate teams. However, Japanese Rugby was not alone in this respect in the pre professional era.
A striking example of this phenomenon was the "kangaroo" Ian Williams who played for Kobe steel. Williams estimated in 1994 that there were 100 foreigners playing Rugby in Japan, receiving double the local wage, and that perhaps only half a dozen had "real jobs". In late 1995, Shiggy Konno wrote in a memo to the 1995 IRB that "I am not sure that our user was saved."
Other leading international players in Japan, including Tonga international Sinali latu had already finished playing for the Japanese national team, while a number of top matches, such as the norm Hadley and Joe Stanley have become employees of various Japanese companies. A prominent Japanese advocate of amateurism was Shiggy Konno.
1.9. History. 1990s
In the 1990s, years Pacific of the contest, including the US, Canada, Japan, Hong Kong, Tonga, Fiji, Samoa and Argentina, which has no Pacific coast was to be held, but was aborted after the $2 million to sponsor of the contest could not be found.
1.10. History. Present day. (Сегодняшний день)
Japanese teaching methods has been criticized for focusing more on discipline than initiative. One common drill is the "run pass", which involves players all over the pitch and exchanging passes, often for as long as an hour or more.
Former Prime Minister of Japan, Yoshirō Mori 森 喜朗 in June 2005 became President of the Japan Rugby football Union. It was hoped that his influence would contribute to the Rugby world Cup 2011 in Japan, but instead the event was awarded to New Zealand in late November 2005. This led former Mori to accuse members of the Commonwealth of Nations "passing the ball around their friends."
In 2015, Tambo Rugby, a form of tag Rugby played in the muddy rice fields, was introduced in Kyoto.
In 2019, the Rugby world Cup was held in Japan for the first time in Asia.
1.11. History. Notable matches. (Знаменательные матчи)
At the 1995 world Cup, Japan suffered losing 145-17 to New Zealand, the second worst in the history of the tournament, the stadium "Free state" in Bloemfontein.
In 2015, the Rugby world Cup, Japan beat South Africa 34-32 in the opening match of pool B, producing probably the biggest shock in the history of professional Rugby.
In 2016 Super Rugby Sunwolves were broken 92-17 on the cheetahs in Bloemfontein.
In 2019 world Cup, Japan was in group a along with Ireland, Russia, Samoa and Scotland. After a nervous opening night win against Russia 30-10, Japan beat Ireland 19-12, a huge upset and the result expected. The third group match against Samoa ended with another victory, this time 38-19, and secure a crucial bonus for scoring four or more tries.
In the long-awaited final group game against Scotland, both teams had to win to advance in the playoffs at the expense of others. The match went ahead despite pre-match fears that it should be abolished due to the ongoing issues caused by Typhoon Hagibis. Pre-tournament rules stated that if "Typhoon" was enough to interfere, the game will be cancelled, and the result is a tie. This is a controversial rule would have allowed Japan to progress by default because of the previous results.
After final safety checks, the game was allowed to start. The game topsy Turvey, Japan edged out Scotland 28-21 to register their second shock win of the tournament. They also became the first Asian country to top their group in the Rugby world Cup and the first Asian team to enter the playoffs.
Japan played South Africa in the quarterfinals. South Africa won with a score of 26-3.
2. Governing body. (Руководящий орган)
Rugby in Japan regulated by the Japan Rugby football Union. Japan Rugby football Union was officially established on 30 November 1926 and became a full member of world Rugby, then known as the international football Rugby Board in 1987, shortly before the 1987 Rugby world Cup. In to the jrfu has also received a seat on the Executive Board of women in that time. It is also one of the founders of the Asian Rugby football Union.
3. 2019 Rugby World Cup. (2019 Кубок Мира По Регби)
Japan was announced as host for 2019 Rugby world Cup on Jul 28, 2009 at a special meeting of the IRB in Dublin.
Twelve stadiums have been proposed for holding matches in 2019:
- Nissan Stadium, Yokohama 72.327.
- Kumagaya Rugby Ground, Kumagaya 24.000.
- Sapporo Dome, Sapporo 41.410.
- Toyota Stadium, Toyota 45.000.
- Hakatanomori Football Stadium, Hakata 22.563.
- Tokyo Stadium, Tokyo 49.970.
- Hanazono Rugby Stadium, Higashi-osaka 30.000.
- Kobe City Misaki Park Stadium, Kobe 30.312.
- Kamaishi Recovery Memorial Stadium, Kamaishi 16.187.
- Ōita Stadium, Ōita 40.000.
- Ogasayama Sports Park Ecopa Stadium, Shizuoka 50.889.
- Kumamoto Prefectural Athletic Stadium, Kumamoto 32.000.
4. Domestic competitions. (Внутренние соревнования)
All-Japan Championship. (Все-Японского Чемпионата)
It is played at the end of the season and includes the best teams of the League, the top two universities and the champion club team.
4.1. Domestic competitions. Top League. (Высшая Лига)
In 2003, major League was created to improve the overall standards of Japanese Rugby Union. This is Japans first national League and the first step on the road to professionalism. Until the League proves to be successful with many closely fought and exciting game, although attendance at the Games, usually not high and generally limited to diehard fans and employees of the company.
The Lixil Cup, formerly known as Cup Microsoft, is a Japanese Rugby knockout tournament initially sponsored by Microsoft Japan. It is played between the top teams of the Higher League.
4.2. Domestic competitions. All-Japan Championship. (Все-Японского Чемпионата)
It is played at the end of the season and includes the best teams of the League, the top two universities and the champion club team.
4.3. Domestic competitions. Clubs championship. (Чемпионат клубов)
The fifteenth annual clubs championship final was held on February 17, 2008 at Chichibunomiya between Tamariba club and Rokko Seahawks and won by the former 21-0. In Tamariba the winner will go down in the first round of the all-Japan championship.
5. Popularity. (Популярность)
As a team sport, Rugby is in fifth place in popularity behind baseball, football, basketball and volleyball. This reality is unlikely to change until Japans national team of Rugby Union will be consistently successful on the world stage, especially at the Rugby world Cup. However, the sport is to have potential as its current number of registered players 125.000 corresponds to the number of players from the best Nations Rugby.
Currently, Rugby is rarely seen on TV, and is mainly restricted to CS and cable subscription channels, which hinders its growth. Sometimes more games are shown on NHK TV, for example, a University Rugby championship and the Cup final Microsoft.
6. National team. (Сборная)
The national team is called "cherry blossom" is the 11th in the world in the World of Rugby as at 11 Sep 2017 ranking in the world of Rugby.
With the relative weakness of Asian Rugby, Japan is trying to make a serious competition. The result is that Japan is caught in the middle: a big fish in a small pond of Asian Rugby Union, but is currently relatively small fish in the vast ocean of International Rugby Union.
The team is also usually reinforced for the world Cup in one or two foreign-born players who fall under the rules in the world of Rugby. These Andrew Miller and Andrew McCormick, both of New Zealand and Sinali latu from Tonga were the most successful.
6.1. National team. Rugby World Cup. (Кубок Мира По Регби)
Japan have played in every world Cup Rugby with the first tournament in 1987. They will make the tournament for the first time in the 2019 Rugby world Cup. With a victory over South Africa in 2015, they won their second match at the Rugby world Cup. They went on to become the first team ever to win three matches in one world Cup, but still will not be able to go to the playoffs.
6.2. National team. Pacific Nations Cup. (Кубок Тихоокеанских Наций)
The Pacific Nations Cup is an international Rugby competition held between six Pacific rim sides, Fiji, Japan, Samoa, Tonga, Australia, and New Zealand Maori.
6.3. National team. Other competitions. (Другие конкурсы)
Asian five Nations is a competition in the development of Rugby in Asia, starting in 2008.
The super Cup was an annual international Rugby competition contested by national teams from Canada, Japan, Russia and the United States. Previously it was known as the Super bowl powers, and now was replaced on the IRB Nations Cup. Japan won the tournament in 2004.
In the 2011-12 season World sevens series, an annual circuit with the participation of national teams of the Rugby people, the debut of the newly created tournament in Japan, seven. The event was scheduled for the weekend at Chichibunomiya, the first edition of straddled March and April. After the 2014-15 series, Tokyo was removed from the schedule of the series and replaced by Singapore.
6.4. National team. Super Rugby. (Супер Регби)
Japan received a spot in the annual Super Rugby competition starting in 2016. Super Rugby franchise known as the Sunwolves was created to participate in the 18-team competition, which also featured teams from Argentina, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. While not officially affiliated with the Japanese national team, the majority of players in the squad Sunwolves are also members of the national team.
7. Cultural references. (Культурные отсылки)
Rugby is sometimes referred to in Japanese popular culture.
- An episode of the anime Full Metal Panic? Fumoffu has protagonists Sousuke Sagara and Kaname Chidori charged with training the rugby team of their school for an upcoming game, because the team has been losing their matches in a consistent basis, should they lose, the rugby club would have to disband. When Sousuke takes over training duties, he uses typical Army training to turn the otherwise overtly delicate players into ruthless, cold-blooded "killing machines", allowing the team to dominate the game and thus, keep the rugby club functioning.
- "Sports Drink Rugby" is a soft drink inspired by the sport.
- In the manga, More Ryuunosuke episode 108 an alien invasion is foiled when the extraterrestrials make the mistake of arriving during a rugby match.
- All Out!! is a manga written by Shiori Amase. It was adapted into an anime by TMS Entertainment and Madhouse, which began airing on 7 October 2016. The series follows the Kanagawa High School Rugby Club also referred to as Jinko as the team tries to improve and eventually play in the national championships.
- School Wars: Hero スクール・ウォーズ／ＨＥＲＯ, sukūru wōzu hero 2004, dir. Ikuo Sekimoto is set in an industrial high school in 1974 Kyoto. Devastated by campus violence, most of the teachers interact as little as possible with the students, but a physical education teacher, who is a former Japan player believes he can constructively channel the teens anger by forming a rugby team. Despite internal conflicts and setbacks, the team begins to bond, forming a type of family relationship most of them have never known and a national championship may be within their grasp. It is based on the story of a traditionalist coach, Mr Yamaguchi, at Fushimi Technical High School and his battle against teenage delinquency.
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